Questions and answers about Iran presentation on 4th steering committee in Egypt
Question 1- Techniques used for hybrid cotton production and its production per ha?
Answer: Heterosis refers to superiority of F1 hybrid in one or more characters over its parents. In cotton, various types of hybrids have developed for commercial cultivation. Cotton hybrids can be classified into the various groups such as: Ploidy level, species involved and method of hybrid seed production. Tetraploid hybrids of cotton will be released for commercial cultivation in Iran. Intraspecific and Interspecific hybrids are two types of hybrids which are applied in Iran. Intraspecific hybrids have been developed in Gossypium hirsutum by 6-7 ton yield per hectare in Iran.
     Method of hybrid cotton production in Iran is conventional hybrid, i.e., by hand emasculation and pollination. Breeder seeds of male and female parents are used for the production of hybrid seeds. This ensures genetic purity in seed production. The female and male parents are planted in the same field in separate plots as 4:2, 3:2 or 5:2 ratios. The off type plants are rouged out before onset of crossing program. The female parents are planted at wide spacing for easy movement during crossing, generally 160×20 cm spacing in seed production plots. Crossing practices is started after one or two week of flowering onset. Flower buds emasculate in time between 4 to 7 afternoons. The next day, emasculated buds are pollinated with the pollen of male parent. The best time for pollination is time between 7 to 10 mornings. Pollinated buds are labeled by red yarn. In harvesting time, pollinated bolls are harvested individually.
Question 2- Do you have a maintaining system for supplying the farmers by cotton seed in purification case?
Answer: Cotton seeds are free from weed seeds, other crop seeds and foreign matter. In Iran, cotton seeds by high germination ability are planted. Isolation distance is considered for production of nucleus seed. Nucleus seed is genetically and physically pure. Purity test is conducted to determine physical purity of seed. As ISTA rules, the seed samples are separated into the three components, including:  pure seeds, inert matter and other seeds.
  1. Pure seeds; it refer to the seeds of variety under testing.
  2. Inert matter; it is included broken or damaged seeds, leaf bits, soil particles, etc.
  3. Other seeds; it is included seeds of other variety, other crop seeds and weed seeds.                  
Question 3- What about the organic cotton production in Iran?
Answer: At present, organic cotton is not planted in Iran as commercial while it is carried out in some parts of Iran under research projects which their results may be used at farmer fields as on farm field or extensional-comparative experiment. Government of Iran has special regards to organic plant production such as cotton and also has persuasive supports by allocation of subvention. Steering program is codified for organic and health crops production. Steering committee of health crops and organic agriculture are including representations from ministry of Jehad-E- Agriculture, ministry of health and medical education and standard institute. Production of 30 million ton organic and health products have approved by the end of fifth development program.  
Question 4- What about the Bt cotton production in Iran?
Answer: Some projects about BT and other transgenic cottons are conducting in Iranian Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute but their release and field tests need to the biosafety rules.
Question 5- Are there any activities for recycling the cotton wastes from field to mill?
Answer: No, there are no activities for recycling of the cotton waste from field to mill at present.

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Address: INCANA Secretariat Cotton Research Institute of Iran (CRII), Dr. Beheshti Street, Gorgan, I.R.Iran, Zip Code: 49166-85915

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